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History: African American: Communities
Libraries Research Guide: African American History
Partial list of sources from the Madson Area Technical College library collection potentially appropriate for African American community assignment.
A-Train : memoirs of a Tuskegee Airman by Charles W. Dryden; Benjamin O. Davis (Foreword by)A-Train is the story of one of the black Americans who, during World War II, graduated from Tuskegee (AL) Flying School and served as a pilot in the Army Air Corps' 99th Pursuit Squadron. Charles W. Dryden presents a fast-paced, balanced, and personal account of what it was like to prepare for a career traditionally closed to African Americans, how he coped with the frustrations and dangers of combat, and how he, along with many fellow black pilots, navigators, bombardiers, and crewmen, emerged with a magnificent war record. Under the command of Colonel Benjamin O. Davis Jr., the Tuskegee airmen fought over North Africa, Sicily, and Europe, escorting American bomber crews who respected their "no-losses" record. Some were shot down, many of them were killed or captured by the enemy, and several won medals of valor and honor. But the airmen still faced great barriers of racial prejudice in the armed forces and at home. As a member of that elite group of young pilots who fought for their country overseas while being denied civil liberties at home, Dryden presents an eloquent story that will touch each and every reader.
An absolute massacre : the New Orleans race riot of July 30, 1866 by James G. HollandsworthIn the summer of 1866, racial tensions ran high in Louisiana as a constitutional convention considered disenfranchising former Confederates and enfranchising blacks. On July 30, a procession of black suffrage supporters pushed through an angry throng of hostile whites. Words were exchanged, shots rang out, and within minutes a riot erupted with unrestrained fury. When it was over, at least forty-eight men -- an overwhelming majority of them black -- lay dead and more than two hundred had been wounded. In An Absolute Massacre, James G. Hollandsworth, Jr., examines the events surrounding the confrontation and offers a compelling look at the racial tinderbox that was the post-Civil War South.
The African-American History of Nashville, Tennessee, 1780-1930 by Bobby L. LovettSince its founding, Nashville has been a center of black urban culture in the Upper South. Blacks--slave and free--made up 20 percent of Fort Nashborough's settlers in 1779. From these early years through the Civil War, a growing black community in Nashville, led by a small group of black elites, quietly built the foundations of a future society, developing schools, churches, and businesses. The Civil War brought new freedoms and challenges as the black population of Nashville increased and as black elites found themselves able--even obliged--to act more openly. To establish a more stable and prosperous African-American community, the elites found that they had to work within a system bound to the interests of whites. But the aims of this elite did not always coincide with those of the black community at large. By 1930, younger blacks, in particular, were moving towards protest and confrontation. As democratization and higher education spread, the lines distinguishing Nashville's black elite became blurred. Bobby L. Lovett presents a complex analysis of black experience in Nashville during the years between 1780 and 1930, exploring the impact of civil rights, education, politics, religion, business, and neighborhood development on a particular African-American community. This study of black Nashville examines lives lived within a web of shifting alliances and interests--the choices made, the difficulties overcome. Fifteen years in the making, illustrated with maps and photographs, this work is the first detailed study of any of Tennessee's major urban black communities. Lovett here collects, organizes, and interprets a large, rich body of data, making this material newly accessible to all interested in the black urban experience.
African-American Life in Dekalb County, 1823-1970 by Herman S. MasonWithin these pages, discover little-known facts about the county's past residents, including Bukumbo, the young girl who was brought from Africa to Decatur to serve as a nurse, who quickly became a beloved member of the family and died only a short while later. Learn about the great impact that the Clark and Oliver families had on Decatur, and view famous sections and landmarks of the county, including Lithonia, Ellenwood, Stone Mountain, Doraville, Tucker, Chamblee, Clarkston, Lynwood Park, Scottdale, and South DeKalb. Whether one is well acquainted with the county's rich heritage or a newcomer just becoming familiar with the people and places that make up the county's history, African-American Life in DeKalb County: 1823-1970 offers something for everyone.
Publication Date: 1998-11-15
The African American Experience in Texas by James M. Smallwood (Editor); Bruce A. Glasrud (Editor)The African American Experience in Texas collects for the first time the finest historical research and writing on African Americans in Texas. Covering the time period between 1820 and the late 1970s, the selections highlight the significant role that black Texans played in the development of the state. Topics include politics, slavery, religion, military experience, segregation and discrimination, civil rights, women, education, and recreation. This anthology provides new insights into a previously neglected part of American history and is essential reading for anyone interested in the history of black Texans.
African American Miners and Migrants: The Eastern Kentucky Social Club by Thomas E. Wagner; Phillip J. Obermiller; William H. Turner (Afterword by)Thomas E. Wagner and Phillip J. Obermiller's African American Miners and Migrants documents the lives of Eastern Kentucky Social Club (EKSC) members, a group of black Appalachians who left the eastern Kentucky coalfields and their coal company hometowns in Harlan County. Bound together by segregation, the inherent dangers of mining, and coal company paternalism, it might seem that black miners and mountaineers would be eager to forget their past. Instead, members of the EKSC have chosen to celebrate their Harlan County roots. African American Miners and Migrants uses historical and archival research and extensive personal interviews to explore their reasons and the ties that still bind them to eastern Kentucky. The book also examines life in the model coal towns of Benham and Lynch in the context of Progressive Era policies, the practice of welfare capitalism, and the contemporary national trend of building corporate towns and planned communities.
African-Americans in the Colonial Era by Donald R. Wright; Abraham S. Eisenstadt (Editor); John Hope Franklin (Editor)Black slavery existed in America for over two centuries. From the middle of the 17th to the end of the 18th century the plantations and smaller farms of the Chesapeake and the Carolina and Georgia low country constituted the heart of American slavery. It was only in the last 50 years of slavery's existence that the institution moved into the lands of the Deep South and switched from emphasis on tobacco or rice production to cotton. Yet the focus of the study of American slavery has always been on the institution as it operated in the cotton South between 1820 and 1860.
African Americans of Mars Bluff, South Carolina by Amelia W. Vernon"Although she has spent most of her adult life away from the South, Amelia Wallace Vernon was reared in a small farming community in South Carolina's pine belt known as Mars Bluff. On annual visits home, Vernon, knowing little about the subject, became increasingly interested in exploring and preserving the history of African Americans in that area. Over a period of years she taped interviews with several elderly African Americans in Mars Bluff, who talked about their lives and those of their ancestors. One such individual was Archie Waiters, a lifelong resident who had grown up in the home of his grandfather Alex Gregg, a former slave. Waiters and others provided Vernon with a trove of information about the history and culture of blacks in the area. From those interviews, which, transcribed, come to more than one thousand manuscript pages, Vernon has fashioned this fascinating volume." "In a clear and engaging style, Vernon traces the history of African Americans at Mars Bluff from the mid-eighteenth century to the mid-twentieth century, following the paths of blacks transported from Africa to this continent to be sold as slaves and relating the harsh conditions under which they existed. She describes the efforts of free blacks after emancipation and into this century to improve their own lives and those of their families. Throughout, she emphasizes the strong relationship African Americans have always had with the land and the many traditions and customs blacks brought with them from Africa that have survived and flourished in this country in spite of the burdens of slavery, poverty, and discrimination." "During the course of her interviews, Vernon discovered that many African Americans at Mars Bluff cultivated small plots of rice until the 1920s. Although the coastal region of the state was well known for its large-scale rice production, little was known about the prevalence of African American rice growers in the pine belt. As the author reveals, African Americans in this region relied on knowledge brought from West Africa to grow what is sometimes called "providence rice" - rice cultivated in small plots located in natural depressions and watered by rain. In Tom Brown, a former slave who cleared land for a rice field, Vernon sees someone who has realized the freedman's dream of land ownership, a dream based on African spiritual values and Reconstruction promises." "Unlike the African American population of coastal South Carolina, which has been extensively studied, blacks who lived and worked inland have been given little attention, making Vernon's book particularly valuable. Allowing the story of African Americans at Mars Bluff to unfold largely through their own words, Vernon offers a vivid, inspiring picture of a community whose values and traditions were primarily shaped by an African legacy of wisdom, dignity, and reverence for the land."--BOOK JACKET.Title Summary field provided by Blackwell North America, Inc. All Rights Reserved
AlabamaNorth : African-American migrants, community, and working-class activism in Cleveland, 1915-45 by Kimberley L. PhillipsLangston Hughes called it "a great dark tide from the South": the unprecedented influx of blacks into Cleveland that gave the city the nickname "Alabama North." In this remarkable study, Kimberley Phillips reveals the breadth of working-class black experiences and activities in Cleveland and the extent to which these were shaped by traditions and values brought from the South. Phillips shows how migrants' moves north established complex networks of kin and friends and infused the city with a highly visible southern African-American culture. She examines the wide variety of black fraternal, benevolent, social, and church-based organizations working-class migrants created and demonstrates how they prepared the way for new forms of individual and collective activism in workplaces and the city. Giving special consideration to the employment patterns and experiences of working-class black women in Cleveland, AlabamaNorth reveals how migrants' expressions of tradition and community gave them a new consciousness of themselves as organized workers in the urban North and created the underpinning for new forms of black labor activism.
Ar'n't I a woman? : female slaves in the plantation South by Deborah Gray WhiteLiving with the dual burdens of racism and sexism, slave women in the plantation South assumed roles within the family and community that contrasted sharply with traditional female roles in the larger American society. This new edition of Ar'n't I a Woman? reviews and updates the scholarship on slave women and the slave family, exploring new ways of understanding the intersection of race and gender and comparing the myths that stereotyped female slaves with the realities of their lives. Above all, this groundbreaking study shows us how black women experienced freedom in the Reconstruction South -- their heroic struggle to gain their rights, hold their families together, resist economic and sexual oppression, and maintain their sense of womanhood against all odds.
August reckoning : Jack Turner and racism in post-Civil War Alabama by William Warren Rogers; Robert David WardAn important story of one man's life, lived with courage and principle. During the decades of Bourbon ascendancy after 1874, Alabama institutions like those in other southern states were dominated by whites. Former slave and sharecropper Jack Turner refused to accept a society so structured. Highly intelligent, physically imposing, and an orator of persuasive talents, Turner was fearless before whites and emerged as a leader of his race. He helped to forge a political alliance between blacks and whites that defeated and humiliated the Bourbons in Choctaw County, the heart of the Black Belt, in the election of 1882. That summer, after a series of bogus charges and arrests, Turner was accused of planning to lead his private army of blacks in a general slaughter of the county whites. Justice was forgotten in the resultant fear and hysteria.
Publication Date: 2004-06-30
Ballots and Fence Rails by William M. Evans"Ballots and Fence Rails recounts the struggle to reshape the post-Civil War society of the lower Cape Fear River in North Carolina, the Confederacy's last outlet to the sea. Focusing on events in the port city of Wilmington and its rural environs, William McKee Evans ranges in time from the region's occupation by Union forces in 1865 to the end of Reconstruction in 1877." "Evans shows that although social change was sought at the ballot box, it was just as often resisted in the streets, with one faction armed with pistols and sabres and another, at one point, armed mostly with fence rails. Drawing on his extensive knowledge of the region, Evans dramatically portrays the conflict as it was viewed by former slaves, southern conservatives, carpetbaggers, and scalawags. Evans also clarifies many generalizations about Reconstruction that are often empty or unsubstantiated, showing that the right to vote cannot alone diffuse political power and that Reconstruction at the local level often differed from Reconstruction at the state level."--BOOK JACKET.Title Summary field provided by Blackwell North America, Inc. All Rights Reserved
The battle of Ole Miss : civil rights v. states' rights by Frank LambertJames Meredith broke the color barrier in 1962 as the first African American student at Ole Miss. The violent riot that followed would be one of the most deadly clashes of the civil rights era, seriously wounding scores of U.S. Marshals and killing two civilians, forcing the federal governmentto send thousands of soldiers to restore the peace. Frank Lambert, who was a student at Ole Miss at the time and witnessed many of these events, here provides an engaging narrative of the tumultuous period surrounding Meredith's arrival at the University of Mississippi. Lambert excels at conveyingthe students' perspective of the riot and its aftermath. He explores why James Meredith deemed it important enough to risk his life to enter Ole Miss and why many of the white students resisted Meredith's joining the school. Perhaps most important, Lambert captures the complex and confused reactionsof the students, most of whom had never given race a second thought and many were not against Meredith attending Ole Miss.
Publication Date: 2010-06-18
Becoming free, remaining free : manumission and enslavement in New Orleans, 1846-1862 by Judith Kelleher SchaferLouisiana state law was unique in allowing slaves to contract for their freedom and to initiate a lawsuit for liberty. Judith Kelleher Schafer describes the ingenious and remarkably sophisticated ways New Orleans slaves used the legal system to gain their independence and find a voice in a society that ordinarily gave them none. Showing that remaining free was often as challenging as becoming free, Schafer also recounts numerous cases in which free people of color were forced to use the courts to prove their status. She further documents seventeen free blacks who, when faced with deportation, amazingly sued to enslave themselves. Schafer's impressive detective work achieves a rare feat in the historical profession--the unveiling of an entirely new facet of the slave experience in the American South.
Publication Date: 2003-05-01
Becoming Free in the Cotton South by Susan E. O'Donovan'Becoming Free in the Cotton South' is a moving and intimate narrative, drawing upon a multiplicity of sources and individual stories to provide an understanding of the forces that shaped both slavery and freedom, and of the generation of African Americans who tackled the passage that lay between.
Publication Date: 2007-05-15
Before the Mayflower : a history of black America by Lerone BennettThe black experience in America-- starting from its origins in western Africa up to the present day-- is examined in this seminal study from a prominent African American figure. The entire historical timeline of African Americans is addressed, from the Colonial period through the civil rights upheavals of the 1960s and 1970s. The most recent scholarship on the geographic, social, economic, and cultural journeys of African Americans, together with vivid portraits of key black leaders, complete this comprehensive reference.
Publication Date: 1993-07-01
The birth of Black America : the first African Americans and the pursuit of freedom at Jamestown by Tim HashawThe voyage that shaped early America was neither that of the Susan Constant in 1607 nor the Mayflower in 1620. Absolutely vital to the formation of English-speaking America was the voyage made by some sixty Africans stolen from a Spanish slave ship and brought to the young struggling colony of Jamestown in 1619. It was an act of colonial piracy that angered King James I of England, causing him to carve up the Virginia Company's monopoly for virtually all of North America. It was an infusionof brave and competent souls who were essential to Jamestown's survival and success. And it was the arrival of pioneers who would fire the first salvos in the centuries-long African-American battle for liberation. Until now, it has been buried by historians. Four hundred years after the birth of English-speaking America, as a nation turns its attention to its ancestry, The Birth of Black America reconstructs the true origins of the United States and of the African-American experience.
Black and brown : African Americans and the Mexican Revolution, 1910-1920 by Gerald HorneWinner of a 2005 Gustavus Myers Outstanding Book Award (Honorable Mention) The Mexican Revolution was a defining moment in the history of race relations, impacting both Mexican and African Americans. For black Westerners, 1910#150;1920 did not represent the clear-cut promise of populist power, but a reordering of the complex social hierarchy which had, since the nineteenth century, granted them greater freedom in the borderlands than in the rest of the United States. Despite its lasting significance, the story of black Americans along the Mexican border has been sorely underreported in the annals of U.S. history. Gerald Horne brings the tale to life in Black and Brown. Drawing on archives on both sides of the border, a host of cutting-edge studies and oral histories, Horne chronicles the political currents which created and then undermined the Mexican border as a relative safe haven for African Americans. His account addresses blacks' role as “Indian fighters,” the relationship between African Americans and immigrants, and the U.S. government's growing fear of black disloyalty, among other essential concerns of the period: the heavy reliance of the U.S. on black soldiers along the border placed white supremacy and national security on a collision course that was ultimately resolved in favor of the latter. Mining a forgotten chapter in American history, Black and Brown offers tremendous insight into the past and future of race relations along the Mexican border.
Black Chicago's First Century, 1833-1900 by Christopher Robert ReedIn Black Chicago's First Century, Christopher Robert Reed provides the first comprehensive study of an African American population in a nineteenth-century northern city beyond the eastern seaboard. Reed's study covers the first one hundred years of African American settlement and achievements in the Windy City, encompassing a range of activities and events that span the antebellum, Civil War, Reconstruction, and post-Reconstruction periods. The author takes us from a time when black Chicago provided both workers and soldiers for the Union cause to the ensuing decades that saw the rise and development of a stratified class structure and growth in employment, politics, and culture. Just as the city was transformed in its first century of existence, so were its black inhabitants. Methodologically relying on the federal pension records of Civil War soldiers at the National Archives, as well as previously neglected photographic evidence, manuscripts, contemporary newspapers, and secondary sources, Reed captures the lives of Chicago's vast army of ordinary black men and women. He places black Chicagoans within the context of northern urban history, providing a better understanding of the similarities and differences among them. We learn of the conditions African Americans faced before and after Emancipation. We learn how the black community changed and developed over time: we learn how these people endured--how they educated their children, how they worked, organized, and played. Black Chicago's First Century is a balanced and coherent work. Anyone with an interest in urban history or African American studies will find much value in this book.
The Black Churches of Brooklyn by Clarence TaylorThe black church has always played a vital role in urban black communities. Clarence Taylor examines the impact of this crucial institution on the city and its efforts to meet the arduous and sometimes devastating demands and sacrifices of urban living.
Black Confederates and Afro-Yankees in Civil War Virginia by Ervin L. JordanOn the eve of the Civil War, more Afircan-Americans lived in Virginia than in any other state- 490,000 slaves and 59,000 free blacks- and they were active participants in the single most dynamic event to shape the American consciousness. Black Confederates and Afro-Yankees in Civil War Virginia is the first comprehensive study of Civil War Afro-Virginian history and culture. Through it we witness every aspect of black life: slave and free; rural and urban; homefront and battlefield; at work on plantations but also in munitions factories in Richmond; as wartime Union spies and as soldiers in the Confederate army.
The Black Family in Slavery and Freedom, 1750-1925 by Herbert G. Gutman
Black Labor in Richmond, 1865-1890 by Peter Rachleff
Black life on the Mississippi : slaves, free blacks, and the western steamboat world by Thomas C. Buchanan
Black Milwaukee : the making of an industrial proletariat,1915-45 by Joe William Trotter
Black pioneers : images of the Black experience on the North American frontier by John W. Ravage
The Black Presence in the Era of the American Revolution, 1770-1800 by Sidney Kaplan
Black Society in Spanish Florida by Jane Landers; Peter H. Wood (Foreword by)
The Black West by Katz, William Loren.
Black Yankees : the development of an Afro-American subculture in eighteenth-century New England by William D. Piersen
Bond of iron : master and slave at Buffalo Forge by Charles B. Dew
Bound for Freedom by Douglas Flamming
Bridges of Memory: Chicago's first wave of black migration by Timuel D. Black; Studs Terkel (Foreword by); John Hope Franklin (Foreword by); DuSable Museum Staff (Other Primary Creator)Recipient of 2007 The Hyde Park Historical Society Paul Cornell Award Recipient of 2007 The Hyde Park Historical Society Paul Cornell Award A collection of interviews with African Americans who came to Chicago from the South. In their first great migration to Chicago that began during World War I, African Americans came from the South seeking a better life--and fleeing a Jim Crow system of racial prejudice, discrimination, and segregation. What they found was much less than what they'd hoped for, but it was much better than what they'd come from--and in the process they set in motion vast changes not only in Chicago but also in the whole fabric of American society. This book, the first of three volumes, revisits this momentous chapter in American history with those who lived it. Oral history of the first order, Bridges of Memory lets us hear the voices of those who left social, political, and economic oppression for political freedom and opportunity such as they'd never known--and for new forms of prejudice and segregation. These children and grandchildren of ex-slaves found work in the stockyards and steel mills of Chicago, settled and started small businesses in the "Black Belt" on the South Side, and brought forth the jazz, blues, and gospel music that the city is now known for. Historian Timuel D. Black, Jr., himself the son of first-generation migrants to Chicago, interviews a wide cross-section of African Americans whose remarks and reflections touch on issues ranging from fascism to Jim Crow segregation to the origin of the blues. Their recollections comprise a vivid record of a neighborhood, a city, a society, and a people undergoing dramatic and unprecedented changes.