On reserve in the Madison College Downtown Library is a pamphlet box with local publications providing helpful information for a neighborhood survey project:
Answer Book (annual Wisconsin State Journal publication)
Book of Business (annual Wisconsin State Journal publication)
Isthmus Annual Manual (guide to Madison)
Madison Neighborhoods (Wisconsin State Journal special section, 12/18/16)
Don't overlook the importance of personal contacts. In smaller communities in particular, social groups and "units of power" may be quite informal (the group that meets every Tuesday morning at the local coffee shop). Talk to the local police chief, the school principal, the local minister, and your local public librarian.